Saw Safely

A wood shop safety compendium.

99.9% is not safe enough. Spend a minute, save a finger.

Contents

Disclaimer

This is not advice, it's just my personal experience. I'm not an expert. What works for me may be useless or even dangerous in someone else's situation.

These are notes that helped one person – me. It's a subset of safety-related topics that you should research and form your own opinion about. Reading this won't replace decades of experience, hands-on training, or a thorough understanding of shop safety, so:

Background

Before anything below was relevant, I did the basics, like:

And meta:

Tired? Stop.

This deserves its own section, or perhaps 11 signs you should stop woodworking for the day. Be careful of #12, "Inability to Stop Working – Compulsively Trying to Finish."

Table saws/saw benches

From Table saw injuries: epidemiology and a proposal for preventive measures:

"Blade contact injuries are by far the most common, representing over 85% of table saw injuries.

A nationwide injury survey distributed in a woodworking magazine found that 42% of reported injuries were caused by table saws and that they were the cause of the highest proportion of amputations (39%)."

These injuries are trivially preventable. If I wasn't already using a flesh-detecting table saw, I'd turn off my computer and go buy one. This is no longer an optional piece of equipment, any more than a new syringe is optional for a doctor giving an injection; eventually, given enough use, something will go wrong, and the cost to prevent it is tiny. This is true regardless of experience; if Jimmy DiResta can sever his pinky finger, anyone can.

Riving knife, blade guard, & anti-kickback pawls

With a SawStop, choosing these is basically solved.

For equipment so unique that no flesh-detecting equivalent exists, look at SharkGuard and Save 'em System.

Physical position

Keep Where do I stand at the table saw? in mind when evaluating push block approaches:

Featherboards

FeatherPro

FeatherPro, with a unique kickback-arresting foam hinge (4m28s):

"Dramatically reduce your chance of harm through this hi-tech hinge while maintaining amazing flexibility and feel … If you accidentally hit your blade with this featherboard it won't shatter or explode in your face"

Foam hinge demo:

More example uses on Instagram.

Magswitch

Magswitch workholding system, as shown in a demo video (2m23s) or by Highland Woodworking (8m40s).

Push sticks/push blocks

Multi-direction push block

Consider a MicroJig Grr-Ripper GR-200/GR-100, Save 'em 3-bearing hold down, or other push block which exerts forces in multiple directions (towards the rip fence, towards the table, and forward through the cut), and contacts the workpiece on both sides of the blade.

For table saw, Grr-Ripper requires removing a blade guard (but not riving knife). As an old version of MicroJig's Web site states, Grr-Ripper is only designed for cuts where a blade guard wouldn't fit regardless:

"With safety as the over riding factor, we aver that the GRR-Ripper® System is not intended to replace or interfere with the saw table blade-guard/splitter combination. It is specifically designed for those times when the conventional combination of a blade-guard and anti-kick back pawls would interfere with the wood working process especially during narrow ripping"

How Grr-Ripper works:

High-friction push block

A push stick like Bench Dog push block or MicroJig Grr-Rip Block can be used with a saw blade guard.

See Bench Dog friction:

Routers

Freehand

Router table

Other

Understand design decisions & trade-offs

UK processes vs. US processes

Use the UK as a chance to examine US practices with a critical eye. The UK has different work preferences, electricity voltage, and regulations (like legally requiring a blade guard/crown guard for all cuts on commercial table saws/sawbenches). As a result, woodworkers in the US and the UK perform common operations differently. Introductions:

Thanks to UKWorkshop, I learned a lot about how UK woodworkers view certain US processes:

Unusual products

Save 'em System

Everything Save 'em System makes seems to be innovative. Watch their products (1m49s):

Pro Cut 50

The Toronto Tool Pro Cut 50 (6m14s) is a table saw competitor that's more like a panel saw turned horizontal (or a hand-operated CNC table). Wood position is fixed and saw moves.

"A conventional table saw is prone to "kick back" due to design but the top mounted saw of the Pro-Cut 50 encapsulates your material thus virtually eliminating the possibility of 'kick back'

By simply unlocking and removing the saw from the Pro-Cut 50 sled and placing the router in its place, you have instantly converted your Pro-Cut 50 from a precision table saw to a full size precision "X" & "Y" router table"

Retrospectives

Matt Vanderlist critiques his own router accident ("If I had taken the time to break out this guide fence…").

Mr. Fix It critiques his own table saw accident, which would have been far less severe with a flesh-detecting saw.

Injury research & statistics

From Table saw injuries: epidemiology and a proposal for preventive measures (2013, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery):

"Blade contact injuries are by far the most common, representing over 85% of table saw injuries. … Lacerations were the most frequent injury sustained (66%) but amputations were not uncommon (10%–15% depending on the sample).

The saw’s blade guard was in use during 31% of blade contact injuries and was removed 67% of the time; … For injuries occurring without a blade guard, the most common reason for its absence was consumer removal (75%)."

From Survey of Injuries Involving Stationary Saws (2011, US Consumer Product Safety Commission):

"injuries related to table/bench saws account for 78.0 percent of the survey-based estimated total number of 101,900 injuries associated with all stationary saws (i.e., table/bench saws, band saws, radial arm saws, and miter saws).

A rip fence was in use at the time of the injury in 85.3 percent of the cases.

Overall, the stock kicked back or jumped in 40.5 percent of the cases. In 93.7 percent of the cases in which the stock kicked back or jumped, the operator thought that the blade contact was due to the stock kickback. When the stock kickback caused the injury, the operator’s hand was pulled into the saw in 65.2 percent of the cases."

From Non-occupational Table Saw-Related Injuries Treated in US Emergency Departments, 1990-2007 (2011, Nationwide Children's Hospital):

"In cases when the mechanism of injury was documented, kickback was the most common mechanism (72 percent)"

National guidelines

Equipment manuals

Representative equipment manuals:


Go forth and saw safely.